The science of baths or bathing, especially the study of the therapeutic use of thermal baths.

“Balneotherapy” is the practice of immersing a subject in mineral water or mineral-laden mud; it is part of the traditional medicine of many cultures and originated in hot springs, cold water springs, or other sources as natural gases ”moffets”.

Balneoclimatology is a part of medical specialisation in rehabilitation and physical medicine. Admission in specialisation is made after a national contest and education lasts four years. Rehabilitation using natural therapeutic factors is equally: traditional and contemporary. [source]

Romania owns almost 30% of European natural resources for balneotherapy/health resort medicine consisting in climate (relief, hydrology and vegetation, including salt mines and caves microclimate), mineral/thermal waters (for bathing and drinking cure), mud/peat and gases. gs and specific vegetation.

Romania has different types of mineral/thermal waters: oligomineralized, alkaline, salty, sulfurous, magnesium, metallic, thermal waters, all of them with different chemical composition.

Mineral or thermal water are used for drinking cure, bathing cure, aerosols, and gynecological applications.

Mud is one element of nature having immense impact on the human body in health as well as in sickness. Mud is made from substances formed in natural conditions under the influence of geological processes and which in smoothly divided state and in mixture with water are used in medical practice as mud bath or local procedures. (ISMH). Some of the healing effects of the mud are known empirically from the antiquity, others have been described and studied recently, others have remained even today at the stage of summary explanation.

Gases are represented by emanation of dry carbon dioxide named mofeta and of hydrogen sulphide named sulphatarium used for vascular and condroprotectiv effects.

Romania was among the first European countries to open spa centers (19th century), thus making spa tourism the oldest form of tourism practiced in Romania. In some areas of Transylvania and Baile Herculane, procedures conducted with thermal water date back to ancient times.

The mineral springs, filled with a range of useful properties such as salts, mud, and carbon dioxide put Romania on the map as one of the main European destinations for natural medicine. All of these natural elements offer a wide range of natural treatments, which has been proven to be effective.

The thermal waters are not the only healing elements to be found here. The temperate climate of Romania is not affected by the excessive humidity of oceanic climates and the dryness of continental climates. Immersed in healing waters, sunshine, and find sand, a stay in a Romanian spa center not only provides effective treatments, but great opportunities for relaxation and recreation.
The therapeutic procedures and programs utilize mud, dry massages, underwater massages, shower massages, herbal baths, electrotherapy, and ultrasound. [source]

t the initiative of seven national organizations and line ministries, the first balneological tourism cluster was founded in Romania, in February 2014, with the name TRANSYLVANIA Regional Balneotourism Cluster, covering the Centru Region of Romania.